中国大陆

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Solar Suitability
- How suitable is the climate in the country for solar electricity

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May 6th 2014The sun provides a tremendous resource for generating clean and sustainable electricity without toxic pollution or global warming emissions.

The potential environmental impacts associated with solar power — land use and habitat loss, water use, and the use of hazardous materials in manufacturing — can vary greatly depending on the technology, which includes two broad categories: photovoltaic (PV) solar cells or concentrating solar thermal plants (CSP).

The scale of the system — ranging from small, distributed rooftop PV arrays to large utility-scale PV and CSP projects — also plays a significant role in the level of environmental impact.

For more on solar power technologies, see How Solar Energy Works.
For more on the benefits of solar power and other renewable energy technologies, see Benefits of Renewable Energy Use.
Land Use
 Depending on their location, larger utility-scale solar facilities can raise concerns about land degradation and habitat loss. Total land area requirements varies depending on the technology, the topography of the site, and the intensity of the solar resource. Estimates for utility-scale PV systems range from 3.5 to 10 acres per megawatt, while estimates for CSP facilities are between 4 and 16.5 acres per megawatt.

Unlike wind facilities, there is less opportunity for solar projects to share land with agricultural uses. However, land impacts from utility-scale solar systems can be minimized by siting them at lower-quality locations such as brownfields, abandoned mining land, or existing transportation and transmission corridors [1, 2]. Smaller scale solar PV arrays, which can be built on homes or commercial buildings, also have minimal land use impact.

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Oct 21st 2014very well

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May 9th 2017If you are looking to add solar to your home, there are many factors to consider. From your individual energy usage patterns, the age and nature of your appliances, and even the structure of your home itself – all can all have a significant impact on the size and price of your rooftop solar system. A trained solar integrator will help you investigate these variables, maximize your investment, and help you avoid any limitations that can have a negative impact on your overall solar goals.

With all that said, most of the considerations around a solar energy system fall into one of two categories – the suitability of your home, and the affordability of your target system. Let’s look at both.

Is Your Home Suitable For a Soar Energy System?
The architecture of your home can have a significant impact on how and where solar panels are installed. First and foremost, your roof must be structurally sound and able to support the weight of the panels, especially during periods of high wind. You’re roofing materials should be in good shape as well, since solar panels are generally in place for many years and must be removed and replaced when new roofing is installed.

In addition to structure, the direction of your roof is also important. Here a few general guidelines:
For every 1 kW of capacity, approximately 100 sq. ft. of surface space is needed. So for a typical 5 kW installation, approx. 500 sq. ft. of space is needed.
In Arizona, solar panels are generally most effective when facing south, but east and west can work just as well depending on what time of day your family draws the most power. As always, a trained solar integrator can help you examine your energy consumption patterns and determine the best design to fit your lifestyle.
Any features that can block the path between and sun and your solar panels (shade), such as adjacent trees or structures like chimneys, must also be considered.
The roof surface should be suitable for a long time. While your solar panels can help extend the life of your roof’s surface, they can also impede repair and replacement.

Return on Investment
- What sort of return on investment can homeowners installing a solar power system expect

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Aug 12th 2016In China, the installation of solar power system can get the state subsidies, 0.42 yuan / degree

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May 9th 2017Over the last two decades, the cost of solar energy systems has come down more than seven-fold. As the demand for solar power systems continues to rise and manufacturing volume increases, costs are further decreasing: from 2006 to 2016, the average cost of a system dropped from $9/watt to approximately $4/watt when professionally installed (source: NREL report) or $2/watt self-installed.

That’s great news for DIYers. By saving on installation costs and taking advantage of federal and state tax incentives, a self-installed solar system’s economic payback time is now shorter than ever before, typically within the 5-10 year range for most solar investments.

Once you know your system price, any financing costs, and the value of the electricity generated, it is possible to estimate an approximate payback time on your investment and know the ROI on buying your solar panels. With a more detailed model, it's possible to get an even more accurate number.

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Jun 5th 2017This greatly depends on 3 main components.  
1.  Turnkey price of the system
2.  Grid Electricity costs per kWh
3.  Sunshine hours in the installation location

If you factor these 3 basic principals you can come up with a pretty straight forward ROI calculation.  If you add financing into the equation and other incentives from state and local governments then it can become more complex although not rocket science.  Typically Residential installations are about $1.50/Watt USD to $3.00/Watt USD.  In some locations of the globe ROI can be as low as 3 to 4 years.

Planning Requirements
- Government regulations relating to installations of solar power systems on homes and commercial buildings

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Aug 12th 2016In China, the installation of solar power system can get the state subsidies, 0.42 yuan / degree

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May 9th 2017To help evaluate whether a home solar electric system will work for you, you should consider the following:

Your available solar resource -- do you have clear and unobstructed access to sunlight for most or all of the day, throughout the year?
The system size -- do you have a roof or area large enough to accommodate it?
The economics -- is it worth the investment?
Local permits and covenants -- are there any issues with installing a system?
EVALUATING YOUR SITE'S SOLAR RESOURCE
The solar resource across the United States is ample for solar electric systems -- also known as photovoltaic (PV) systems -- because they can use both direct and scattered sunlight. However, the amount of electricity generated at a particular site depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches it. Thus, PV systems function most efficiently in the southwestern United States, which receives the greatest amount of solar energy.

Before you buy a PV system, you will want to be sure your site has enough solar energy to meet your electricity needs efficiently and economically. Your local system supplier can perform a solar site analysis for you or show you how to do so on your own.

When evaluating your site, you'll also need to consider both the geographic orientation and the tilt of your solar panels -- PV modules -- as both can affect your system's performance.

THE ECONOMICS OF A SMALL SOLAR ELECTRIC SYSTEM
The economics of a home solar electric or PV system are determined by both the capital and operating costs. Capital costs include the initial costs of designing and installing a PV system. Operating costs include the costs associated with maintaining and operating the PV system over its useful life.

The factors that affect both capital and operating costs include:

System components
System size
Whether a system is grid-connected or stands alone (off-grid)
Solar resource at your location (amount of sunlight).
ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION
Before selecting system components and sizing a PV system for an existing home, you should evaluate your energy consumption patterns and try to reduce your home's electricity use. You can start by performing a load analysis, which includes these tasks:

Looking at your utility bills over the past year
Calculating energy consumption
Recognizing consumption trends.
By understanding your "energy habits" and becoming more energy efficient, you can reduce the size of the PV system you'll need, lowering both your capital and operating costs.

If you're designing a new home, you should work with the builder and the solar professional to incorporate your PV system into your whole-house system design -- an approach for building an energy-efficient home.

PV COST CONSIDERATIONS
Ask your PV provider how much electricity your new PV system will produce per year (measured in kilowatt-hours) and compare that number to your annual electricity usage (called demand) to get an idea of how much you will save. As a rule, the cost per kilowatt-hour goes down as you increase the size of the system.

You should also compare the purchase price of utility-generated electricity to the higher costs of smaller PV systems. PV-generated electricity is usually more expensive than conventional, utility-supplied electricity. However, these costs will vary by geographic location.

Solar rebate programs, subsidies, and other incentives can help make PV more affordable. Tax incentives may include a sales tax exemption on the PV system purchase, a property tax exemption, or state personal income tax credits, all of which provide an economic benefit to consumers by lowering high capital costs.

Some solar rebate programs are capped at a certain dollar amount. Therefore, a solar electric system that matches this cap maximizes the benefit of the solar rebate.

Many homeowners use PV systems because other considerations -- such as environmental benefits and energy independence -- tip the balance in their favor.

PERMITS AND COVENANTS
Before purchasing a home solar electric system, research your local permit and neighborhood covenant requirements.

You will probably need to obtain permits from your city or county building department. These include a building permit, an electrical permit, or both. Typically, your PV provider will take care of this, rolling the price of the permits into the overall system price. However, in some cases, your PV provider may not know how much time or money will be involved in obtaining a permit. If so, this task may be priced on a time-and-materials basis, particularly if additional drawings or calculations must be provided to the permitting agency. In any case, make sure the permitting costs and responsibilities are addressed at the start with your PV provider before installation begins.

Code requirements for PV systems vary somewhat from one jurisdiction to the next, but most are based on the National Electrical Code (NEC). Article 690 in the NEC spells out requirements for designing and installing safe, reliable, code-compliant PV systems.

If you are one of the first people in your community to install a PV system, your local building department may not have experience in approving one of these systems. If this is the case, you and your PV provider can speed up the process by working closely with building officials to educate them on the technology.

If you live where a homeowners association must approve a solar electric system, you or your PV provider will likely need to submit your plans and get approval before you begin installing your PV system. However, some state laws stipulate that you have the right to install a solar electric system on your home.

For more information on state and community codes and requirements, see planning for a small renewable energy system.

Financial Incentives
- Feed-in tariffs and other government financial incentives

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May 9th 2017Managed care has become the dominant delivery system in many areas of the United States. Nearly three fourths of privately insured Americans now receive network-based health care through health maintenance organizations (HMOs), preferred provider organizations (PPOs), and various point-of-service hybrid arrangements.1 Physicians receive over one third of their revenue from managed care, and more than one third of physicians receive some revenue from capitated contracts.2

Of managed care's many features, financial incentives to physicians have received the most attention.3 Particular attention has been focused on HMOs that use risk-based capitation financing. Such financing arrangements encourage prevention and cost-effective practice, but also have the potential to discourage care that may be medically appropriate, especially if the omission of such care is unlikely to lead to other negative consequences (e.g., enrollment turnover because of dissatisfaction, revenue losses associated with malpractice cases). Policy makers are concerned that payment incentives confronting individual physicians under some managed care arrangements may distort physicians' clinical judgment.4

Health maintenance organizations vary in how much they rely on financial incentives for cost control, both alone and in combination with other mechanisms, such as utilization review and prior approval policies or broader organizational design aimed at changing physician orientation. Hillman has characterized the balance between these two approaches as the difference between incentives and rules.5 Despite some variation, virtually all HMOs depend at least in part on financial incentives using techniques like capitation, withheld funds, and bonuses.

This article discusses the current use of financial incentives in managed care. It is organized in three parts. The first part is conceptual and includes general assumptions about financial incentives and their role in managed care, a framework to provide context for them, and four key variables to use in defining the form of financial incentives. The second part is empirical and presents findings from a recent national survey of managed care plans to illustrate how incentives are structured in managed care and the organizational context in which they operate. The third part presents the observations of the author, a nonclinician researcher, and highlights key challenges facing the medical community as it decides how to respond to managed care.

Effects of financial incentives in managed care will not be discussed. Though there are several review articles on the performance of managed care, studies focused on the effects of different methods of paying physicians in managed care plans are rare.3,6–8 Rapid change in managed care organizations as well as physician involvement in a number of different health plans present substantial barriers to these types of studies. As a result, most studies have not isolated the effects of financial incentives on physician behavior from effects attributable to organizational or individual physician factors.

Grid Connection
- Overview of the process to get a rooftop solar power system connected to the grid

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May 9th 2017The sun shines on the solar panels generating DC electricity
The DC electricity is fed into a solar inverter that converts it to 240V 50Hz AC electricity.
The 240V AC electricity is used to power appliances in your home.
Surplus electricity is fed back into the main grid.
Whenever the sun shines (and even in overcast weather), the solar cells generate electricity. The grid connect inverter converts the DC electricity produced by the solar panels into 240V AC electricity, which can then be used by the property/household.
If a grid connect system is producing more power than is being consumed, the surplus is fed into the mains power grid. Some electricity companies will meter the electricity fed into the grid by your system and provide a credit on your bill.
When the solar cells are not producing power, for example at night, your power is supplied by the mains power grid as usual. The energy retailer charges the usual rate for the power used.
As all of the components in a grid connect system have no moving parts, you can expect a long and hassle free life from your solar power system! Generous government  solar rebates and incentives mean you can also save thousands on a grid connect system for a limited time!

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May 9th 2017The sun shines on the solar panels generating DC electricity
The DC electricity is fed into a solar inverter that converts it to 240V 50Hz AC electricity.
The 240V AC electricity is used to power appliances in your home.
Surplus electricity is fed back into the main grid.
Whenever the sun shines (and even in overcast weather), the solar cells generate electricity. The grid connect inverter converts the DC electricity produced by the solar panels into 240V AC electricity, which can then be used by the property/household.
If a grid connect system is producing more power than is being consumed, the surplus is fed into the mains power grid. Some electricity companies will meter the electricity fed into the grid by your system and provide a credit on your bill.
When the solar cells are not producing power, for example at night, your power is supplied by the mains power grid as usual. The energy retailer charges the usual rate for the power used.
As all of the components in a grid connect system have no moving parts, you can expect a long and hassle free life from your solar power system! Generous government  solar rebates and incentives mean you can also save thousands on a grid connect system for a limited time!

Recommended Sites
- Useful non-commercial solar websites for homeowners and businesses that want to learn more

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May 9th 2017www.jusolar.com

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May 9th 2017www.jusolar.com

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Jun 5th 2017http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/
https://openpv.nrel.gov/

Other Benefits
- Eg. Energy Performance Certificate benefits for homes in UK

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May 9th 2017Energy Performance Certificates
Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) are needed whenever a property is:

built
sold
rented
You must order an EPC for potential buyers and tenants before you market your property to sell or rent.

In Scotland, you must display the EPC somewhere in the property, eg in the meter cupboard or next to the boiler.

An EPC contains:

information about a property’s energy use and typical energy costs
recommendations about how to reduce energy use and save money
An EPC gives a property an energy efficiency rating from A (most efficient) to G (least efficient) and is valid for 10 years.

Hi,can you help me please.I search for a franchisor of solar system.I leave in Tunisia and i want to become a prospective franchisee.I am waiting for your answer.

Oct 26th 2015 by emnamabrouki23@gmail.com

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Dec 24th 2015Would you like email info@xuyang-pv.com thanks!

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May 9th 2017sales04@jstsolar.com
Rachel liu

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Jun 5th 2017Hello, please contact us at info@symtechsolar.com and we can help you develop your business. We have a full line of solar and business solutions.

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